Geplaatst in interieur

Welcome to Witch’s House

The Spadena House, also known as The Witch’s House, is a storybook house in Beverly Hills, California. Located on the corner of Walden Drive and Carmelita Avenue, it is known for its fanciful, intentionally dilapidated design, and is a landmark included on tours of the area.

The house was designed by Hollywood art director Harry Oliver, who went on to play a major role in Storybook architecture. Oliver was a Hollywood art director who worked on more than 30 films between 1919 to 1938 as art director, art department & as set decorator.He is known for his Hollywood work as art director on the films Seventh Heaven (1927) and Street Angel (1928), for which he was nominated for the very first Academy Awards, as well as set design or art direction on the films Ben Hur (1925), Sparrows (1926), Scarface (1932), Viva Villa! (1934), Mark of the Vampire (1935), and The Good Earth (1937)

It was originally built in 1921 to serve as the offices and dressing rooms for Irvin Willat’s film studio in Culver City, and was moved to its present location in 1934. The converted private home, with its pointy, lopsided roof, tiny windows and stucco with a distressed paint job were then surrounded by an intentionally overgrown English-style garden and a moat-like pond.

Oliver built a number of adobe houses for himself and his family, both because he liked the aesthetic effect, and because the building materials were extremely inexpensive. The first of these was La Ballona Rancho (named after nearby Ballona Creek), built beginning in 1917 near the old Palms film studios. In 1980 it was still standing at the corner of National and Exposition Blvd. in Los Angeles.

The first residents of the 3,500 square feet (330 m2) home, the Spadena family, lent the house their name. A second family moved in and renovated the interior in the 1960s, making some exterior alterations including a skylight visible from certain angles. The moat began leaking under the second family’s ownership and they filled it with soil, and planted a garden. By the time the house came on the market again in 1997, it had fallen into disrepair. Because of the value of its prime location, it was unable to immediately find a buyer uninterested in a teardown of the property. Consequently Michael Libow, a real estate agent, who did not want to see the home demolished, purchased it and began a gradual renovation. After tall, black fencing was initially placed around the lot, the owner received hate mail from people who thought he was going to tear it down.

The residence still appears to this day in movies, including 1995’s Clueless.The home has been called a precursor to Walt Disney’s concept of Imagineering, whereby stage sets become fully realized environments.  Architect Charles Willard Moore once described the building as the “quintessential Hansel and Gretel house.”

https://www.thevintagenews.com/2016/06/23/mysterious-stone-huts-isolated-archipelago-st-kilda/

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Geplaatst in Middeleeuwen

24 March 1603 – Death of Elizabeth I

Posted By Claire on March 24, 2014

 

On this day in history, the 24th March 1603, Queen Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, died at Richmond Palace.

Elizabeth I’s death was the end of an era in so many ways: the end of England’s Golden Age, the end of a long reign (over 44 years) and the end of the Tudor dynasty. The Tudor line died with the Virgin Queen and it was the son of Mary Queen of Scots, James VI of Scotland, who became James I of England and who began the House of Stuart in English history.

Here is a primary source account of Elizabeth I’s last days, written by Sir Robert Carey, Earl of Monmouth, son of Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon, and grandson of Mary Boleyn, in his memoirs:

I took my journey about the end of the year 1602. When I came to court, I found the Queen ill disposed, and she kept her inner lodging; yet she, hearing of my arrival, sent for me. I found her in one of her withdrawing chambers, sitting low upon her cushions. She called me to her; I kissed her hand, and told her it was by chiefest happiness to see her in safety, and in health, which I wished might long continue. She took me by the hand, and wrung it hard, and said, ‘No, Robin, I am not well,’ and then discoursed with me of her indisposition, and that her heart had been sad and heavy for ten or twelve days; and in her discourse, she fetched not so few as forty or fifty great sighs. I was grieved at the first to see her in this plight; for in all my lifetime before, I never knew her fetch a sigh, but when the Queen of Scots was beheaded. Then, upon my knowledge, she shed many tears and sights, manifesting her innocence, that she never gave consent to the death of that Queen.

I used the best words I could, to persuade her from this melancholy humour; but I found by her it was too deep-rooted in her heart, and hardly to be removed. This was upon a Saturday night, and she gave command, that the great closet should be prepared for her to go to chapel the next morning. The next day, all things being in readiness, we long expected her coming. After eleven o’clock, one of the grooms came out, and bade make ready for the private closet; she would not go to the great. There we stayed long for her coming, but at the last she had cushions laid for her in the privy chamber hard by the closet door, and there she heard service. From that day forwards, she grew worse and worse. She remained upon her cushions four days and nights at the least. All about her could not persuade her, either to take any sustenance, or go to bed. The Queen grew worse and worse, because she would be so, none about her being able to persuade her to go to bed. My Lord Admiral was sent for, (who, by reason of my sister’s death, that was his wife, had absented himself some fortnight from court;) what by fair means, what by force, he got her to bed. There was no hope of her recovery, because she refused all remedies.

On Wednesday, the 23d of March, she grew speechless. That afternoon, by signs, she called for her council, and by putting her hand to her head, when the king so Scots was named to succeed her, they all knew he was the man she desired should reign after her. About six at night she made signs for Archbishop Whitgift and her chaplains to come to her, at which time I went in with them, and sat upon my knees full of tears to see that heavy sight. Her Majesty lay upon her back, with one hand in the bed, and the other without. The bishop kneeled down by her, and examined her first of her faith; and she so punctually answered all his several questions, by lifting up her eyes, and holding up her hand, as it was a comfort to all the beholders. Then the good man told her plainly what she was, and what she was to come to; and though she had been long a great Queen here upon earth, yet shortly she was to yield an account of her stewardship to the King of kings. After this he began to pray, and all that were by did answer him. After he had continued long in prayer, till the old man’s knees were weary, he blessed her, and meant to rise and leave her. The Queen made a sign with her hand. My sister Scroop knowing her meaning, told the bishop the Queen desired he would pray still. He did so for a long half hour more, with earnest cries to God for her soul’s health, which he uttered with that fervency of spirit, as the Queen, to all our sight, much rejoiced thereat, and gave testimony to us all of her Christian and comfortable end. By this time it grew late, and every one departed, all but her women that attended her.

This that I heard with my ears, and did see with my eyes, I thought it my duty to set down, and to affirm it for a truth, upon the faith of a Christian; because I know there have been many false lies reported of the end and death of that good lady.”

After Carey had left, Elizabeth slipped into a deep sleep and died peacefully in her sleep in the early hours of the 24th March. Diarist John Manningham recorded her actual death:-

This morning, about three o’clock her Majesty departed from this life, mildly like a lamb, easily like a ripe apple from a tree… Dr Parry told me he was present, and sent his prayers before her soul; and I doubt not but she is amongst the royal saints in heaven in eternal joys.”

RIP Queen Elizabeth I.

Now, I could carry on being sad and morbid, but as I was reading the moving accounts of Elizabeth I’s death, I thought it would be appropriate to celebrate her life, rather than just focus on her death. She was an incredible woman and there are many people around the world who admire her, but why?

For me, I must admit, that part of the attraction is that she was the daughter of Anne Boleyn and as I read more about Elizabeth I see glimpses of her mother in her. As I read her letters and speeches I am blown away by her way with words, her wit, her intelligence and her skills of diplomacy. When I look at the events of her life and reign, I am overawed by the challenges she faced and how she overcame them. When I consider the status of women in Tudor times, I am amazed by Elizabeth’s achievements, and when I read the words of her friends and advisers I am struck by the respect and love they had for a woman who could be incredibly spiteful at times. She was a formidable woman and queen and deserves to be remembered as such.

Originally posted on The Elizabeth Files.

Notes and Sources

  • Sir Robert Carey’s Memoirs, edited by John Boyle, 5th Earl of Cork, in 1759, and by Sir Walter Scott in 1808, quoted on Elfinspell.com

https://www.theanneboleynfiles.com/24-march-1603-death-elizabeth/

Geplaatst in muziek

Blues player Jimmy Dotson dies

http://www.chron.com/entertainment/music/article/Blues-player-Jimmy-Dotson-dies-11030048.php?cmpid=fb-tablet#photo-6856904

Jimmy “Louisiana” Dotson’s nickname connected him to Texas’ neighbor to the east, but the blues player estimated he’d lived in at least 20 places during his career, eventually settling in Houston in the 1990s where he started the band Antique Funk.

Dotson, who played with soul legend Aretha Franklin and blues greats like Slim Harpo and Albert King, died over the weekend after several years of ill health that included a heart attack, a stroke and complications from diabetes. He was 82.

Local blues player Sonny Boy Terry called him “a very inventive guy,” describing his music as “a hybrid, it’s part Ray Brown and part Ray Charles.”

Dotson was born near Baton Rouge. After a failed attempt to get a career going in New York he returned to Louisiana and played drums with the Rhythm Ramblers. In the 1950s he played alongside Harpo, Ivory Joe Hunter and Lightning Slim, among others. He migrated up to Memphis for a while, and then crossed the river into Arkansas, where he hooked up with King, who he referred to as “a mean character.”

After playing with King, Dotson moved away from the drums when Son Seals taught him how to play guitar. Dotson also played bass and piano, making him a valuable asset for recording sessions in Memphis in the ’60s.

He cut a 45, but didn’t really make a name for himself as a solo artist, so Dotson made his living as a traveling salesman, which he made his job for more than 30 years. He was a fixture on Houston’s blues scene starting in the 1990s, though in the early 2000s his health curbed his performance schedule. The Houston Blues Society had a benefit in his honor in 2014 to help offset his medical bills.

I miss playing. I miss it very much,” he told the Chronicle at the time. “That’s a good feeling when you’re playing, and you see happy faces. Feeling good about what you’re doing.”

Geplaatst in King Arthur

Ultraviolet light reveals hidden text in ancient book of Arthurian stories

http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/ultraviolet-light-reveals-hidden-text-ancient-book-arthurian-stories-002864?page=0%2C1

Scholars in Wales have discovered that parts of one of the most important books in Welsh history was erased and some of the texts on its animal-skin pages overwritten. The book is titled The Black Book of Camarthen and includes Arthurian stories, Christian prayers and poetry.

In passages that were not erased, Merlin, Arthur, Cuchulainn, Uther Pendragon, the hero Gereint, the poet Taliesin, Cyridwen, Fairy King Gwyn ap Nudd and other figures of Dark Ages legend, myth and tall tale make appearances in the 750-year-old, 54-page book. It is the oldest known surviving book entirely in the Welsh language and has some of the earliest references to Myrddin (Merlin) and Arthur.

The verse portrays Arthur and Myrddin (Merlin) before they were king and wise counselor to kings, respectively. In one poem, Arthur is a supplicant to enter the court of a king. Myrddin is a wild man driven mad in battle and extolling the virtues of trees.

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Professor Paul Russell and Myriah Williams of the Cambridge Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic told Past Horizons that a man who owned the book in the 16 th century, probably Jaspar Gryffyth, erased verse, doodles and marginalia that had been added to the manuscript over the centuries as it changed hands.

Using photo-editing software and ultraviolet light to examine the vellum pages, the scholars revealed poetry that is unknown in the Welsh canon. The poems are fragmentary, but they hope with further analysis they can read the text, which they think is the ending of a poem on a preceding page and a new poem at the bottom of the page.

Past Horizons quotes Williams as saying:

The margins of manuscripts often contain medieval and early modern reactions to the text, and these can cast light on what our ancestors thought about what they were reading. The Black Book was particularly heavily annotated before the end of the 16th century, and the recovery of erasure has much to tell us about what was already there and can change our understanding of it “

In text that was not erased, the Black Book contains the oldest known poem about Arthur. He seems to be the leader of a band of warriors seeking entrance to the court of a king. He tries to persuade a king to allow him to enter by extolling the virtues of his heroes:

Arthur distributed gifts,
The blood trickled down.
In the hail of Awarnach,
Fighting with a hag,
He cleft the head of Paiach.
In the fastnesses of Dissethach,
In Mynyd Eiddyn,
He contended with Cynvyn;
By the hundred there they fell,
There they fell by the hundred,
Before the accomplished Bedwyr.
On the strands of Trywruid,
Contending with Garwlwyd,
Brave was his disposition,
With sword and shield;
Vanity were the foremost men
Compared with Cai in the battle.
The sword in the battle
Was unerring in his hand.
They were stanch commanders
Of a legion for the benefit of the country- Bedwyr and Bridlaw;
Nine hundred would to them listen;
Six hundred gasping for breath
Would be the cost of attacking them.
Servants I have had,
Better it was when they were.

This is a translation of Old Welsh into modern English. The book can be read, except for a few chapters, at the Celtic Literature Collective . “Currently housed at the National Library in Wales, the Black Book of Carmarthen (Peniarth MS 1) is a manuscript dating to the middle of the thirteenth century. It is believed to have been the work of a single scribe at the Priory of St. John in Carmarthen,” says the Celtic Literature Collective introduction to the book.

In the prayer “ A Skillful Composition ,” the writer expresses how impossible it is to convey in language the power of God. An excerpt:

A skillful composition, the pattern being from God,
A composition, the language, beautiful and pleasant, from Christ.
And should there be a language all complete around the sun,
On as many pivots as there are under the seat,
On as many winged ones as the Almighty made,
And should every one have thrice three hundred tongues,
They could not relate the power of the Trinity.

The Celtic Literature Collection says of two poems attributed to Merlin, “The poems are often attributed to Myrddin, as one of his ‘prophetic’ poems made during his madness in Celydon.” Merlin had a “wild man” phase before he became the wise counselor of four British kings, though it’s possible Scottish stories of Lailoken were attached to Myrddin in the Middle Ages.

As a source for Myrddin as a wild man of the woods, the webpage Arthuriana : Myrddin/Merlin names several poems, including “ The Apple Trees ” and “ The Dialogue of Myrddin and Taliesen ” from the Black Book of Carmarthen . The webpage states:

In most of these poems the subject – who is either named as Myrddin or is generally assumed to be him – is portrayed as a Wild Man of the Woods living in Coed Celyddon (the ‘Caledonian Forest’), where he has fled to after losing his reason (‘wandering with madness and madmen’) in the northern battle of Arfderydd, fought between rival chieftains c. 573 A.D.; with this lapse into madness Myrddin is said to have acquired the gift of prophecy. The antiquity of these traditions is however suspect, at least in their attachment to Myrddin. In Scottish sources there is a virtually identical tale of a Wild Man to that summarized above, but in these he is named Lailoken rather than Myrddin.”

Past Horizons calls the book a labor of love and says, “Despite its value today, the Black Book of Carmarthen (so called because of the color of its binding) was not an elaborate production, but rather the work of a single scribe who was probably collecting and recording over a long period of his life.”

Geplaatst in Middeleeuwen

24 March 1603 – Death of Elizabeth I

Posted By Claire on March 24, 2014

 

On this day in history, the 24th March 1603, Queen Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, died at Richmond Palace.

Elizabeth I’s death was the end of an era in so many ways: the end of England’s Golden Age, the end of a long reign (over 44 years) and the end of the Tudor dynasty. The Tudor line died with the Virgin Queen and it was the son of Mary Queen of Scots, James VI of Scotland, who became James I of England and who began the House of Stuart in English history.

Here is a primary source account of Elizabeth I’s last days, written by Sir Robert Carey, Earl of Monmouth, son of Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon, and grandson of Mary Boleyn, in his memoirs:

I took my journey about the end of the year 1602. When I came to court, I found the Queen ill disposed, and she kept her inner lodging; yet she, hearing of my arrival, sent for me. I found her in one of her withdrawing chambers, sitting low upon her cushions. She called me to her; I kissed her hand, and told her it was by chiefest happiness to see her in safety, and in health, which I wished might long continue. She took me by the hand, and wrung it hard, and said, ‘No, Robin, I am not well,’ and then discoursed with me of her indisposition, and that her heart had been sad and heavy for ten or twelve days; and in her discourse, she fetched not so few as forty or fifty great sighs. I was grieved at the first to see her in this plight; for in all my lifetime before, I never knew her fetch a sigh, but when the Queen of Scots was beheaded. Then, upon my knowledge, she shed many tears and sights, manifesting her innocence, that she never gave consent to the death of that Queen.

I used the best words I could, to persuade her from this melancholy humour; but I found by her it was too deep-rooted in her heart, and hardly to be removed. This was upon a Saturday night, and she gave command, that the great closet should be prepared for her to go to chapel the next morning. The next day, all things being in readiness, we long expected her coming. After eleven o’clock, one of the grooms came out, and bade make ready for the private closet; she would not go to the great. There we stayed long for her coming, but at the last she had cushions laid for her in the privy chamber hard by the closet door, and there she heard service. From that day forwards, she grew worse and worse. She remained upon her cushions four days and nights at the least. All about her could not persuade her, either to take any sustenance, or go to bed. The Queen grew worse and worse, because she would be so, none about her being able to persuade her to go to bed. My Lord Admiral was sent for, (who, by reason of my sister’s death, that was his wife, had absented himself some fortnight from court;) what by fair means, what by force, he got her to bed. There was no hope of her recovery, because she refused all remedies.

On Wednesday, the 23d of March, she grew speechless. That afternoon, by signs, she called for her council, and by putting her hand to her head, when the king so Scots was named to succeed her, they all knew he was the man she desired should reign after her. About six at night she made signs for Archbishop Whitgift and her chaplains to come to her, at which time I went in with them, and sat upon my knees full of tears to see that heavy sight. Her Majesty lay upon her back, with one hand in the bed, and the other without. The bishop kneeled down by her, and examined her first of her faith; and she so punctually answered all his several questions, by lifting up her eyes, and holding up her hand, as it was a comfort to all the beholders. Then the good man told her plainly what she was, and what she was to come to; and though she had been long a great Queen here upon earth, yet shortly she was to yield an account of her stewardship to the King of kings. After this he began to pray, and all that were by did answer him. After he had continued long in prayer, till the old man’s knees were weary, he blessed her, and meant to rise and leave her. The Queen made a sign with her hand. My sister Scroop knowing her meaning, told the bishop the Queen desired he would pray still. He did so for a long half hour more, with earnest cries to God for her soul’s health, which he uttered with that fervency of spirit, as the Queen, to all our sight, much rejoiced thereat, and gave testimony to us all of her Christian and comfortable end. By this time it grew late, and every one departed, all but her women that attended her.

This that I heard with my ears, and did see with my eyes, I thought it my duty to set down, and to affirm it for a truth, upon the faith of a Christian; because I know there have been many false lies reported of the end and death of that good lady.”

After Carey had left, Elizabeth slipped into a deep sleep and died peacefully in her sleep in the early hours of the 24th March. Diarist John Manningham recorded her actual death:-

This morning, about three o’clock her Majesty departed from this life, mildly like a lamb, easily like a ripe apple from a tree… Dr Parry told me he was present, and sent his prayers before her soul; and I doubt not but she is amongst the royal saints in heaven in eternal joys.”

RIP Queen Elizabeth I.

Now, I could carry on being sad and morbid, but as I was reading the moving accounts of Elizabeth I’s death, I thought it would be appropriate to celebrate her life, rather than just focus on her death. She was an incredible woman and there are many people around the world who admire her, but why?

For me, I must admit, that part of the attraction is that she was the daughter of Anne Boleyn and as I read more about Elizabeth I see glimpses of her mother in her. As I read her letters and speeches I am blown away by her way with words, her wit, her intelligence and her skills of diplomacy. When I look at the events of her life and reign, I am overawed by the challenges she faced and how she overcame them. When I consider the status of women in Tudor times, I am amazed by Elizabeth’s achievements, and when I read the words of her friends and advisers I am struck by the respect and love they had for a woman who could be incredibly spiteful at times. She was a formidable woman and queen and deserves to be remembered as such.

Originally posted on The Elizabeth Files.

Notes and Sources

  • Sir Robert Carey’s Memoirs, edited by John Boyle, 5th Earl of Cork, in 1759, and by Sir Walter Scott in 1808, quoted on Elfinspell.com

https://www.theanneboleynfiles.com/24-march-1603-death-elizabeth/

Geplaatst in Wetenschap

Oyá

Facebook is soms geweldig. In die zin, je kom nog eens iets te weten, daarvoor had je miet eerder het besef dat het bestond. Allerlei voorspelling van je bescherm engel zo en of zus. Leuk om dat soort dingen te doen. En je wordt er altijd wijzer van, toch…… en dat is nooit weg …….

Op internet vond ik het volgende. Weliswaar waar in het Engels, …….

Oya is the powerful Yorùbá Orisha of the winds and tempests. She is considered either the sister of the Orisha of storms Shango, or one of His three wives, with Oshun and Oba. She can manifest as winds ranging from the gentlest breeze to the raging hurricane or cyclone. She goes forth with Her husband during His thunderstorms, destroying buildings, ripping up trees, and blowing things down. Oya is known as a fierce warrior and strong protectress of women, who call on Her to settle disputes in their favor.

As the Orisha of change, She brings down the dead wood to make room for the new, and She uses Her machete or sword to clear a path for new growth. She is believed to watch over the newly dead and assist them as they make the transition from life. She is equated with the Vodou Lwa Maman Brijit, Who, like Oya, guards graveyards.

Oya is the Orisha of the Niger River, and Her violent rainstorms are said to be its source. Like Oshun, She is worshipped not only in Africa but in Brazil, where the Amazon is said to be Her river, and where She is equated with the Virgin Mary as Our Lady of La Candelaria. Oya, who is an Orisha of a very fiery demeanor, also seems to have a far-flung connection with the Celtic Bride or Bridgit, both in Her Vodou counterpart Maman Brijit, and in Her associated Catholic saint, Our Lady of La Candelaria, whose feast day, February 2nd, is shared with Bride.

Oya’s attributes are the sword or machete and the flywhisk, and Her animal is the water buffalo, in Whom She sometimes manifests. Her mother is said to be Yemaya, the Great Sea Mother. Oya Herself is said to be the mother of nine children–Egungun and four sets of twins.

Her number is nine, Her color is burgundy or purple, and Her metal is copper. Offerings to Oya include eggplants, coins, red wine, and cloth.

This card in a reading indicates a time of upheavel or sudden change, of a destructive and chaotic but necessary nature. This destructive clearing makes room for vibrant new growth. Stormy emotions and tempestuous circumstances may whirl around you: hang on!

Alternate names: Oya-ajere “Carrier of the Container of Fire,” Ayaba Nikua “Queen of Death,” Iya Yansan “Mother of Nine,” Ayi Lo Da “She Who Turns and Changes,” Oia, Yansa, Yansan.


Geplaatst in Middeleeuwen

Stunning 700-year-old giant cave used by Knights Templar found behind a rabbit hole in the British countryside

 

The cave, beneath a farmer’s field in Shropshire, was used by the medieval religious order that fought in the Crusades and these stunning images were captured by photographer Michael Scott

 

 

 

 

http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/gallery/stunning-700-year-old-giant-9981913#ICID=sharebar_facebook

Geplaatst in Middeleeuwen

Wapens

 

http://de-middeleeuwen.nl/wapens.html

De eerste ridders in de Middeleeuwen vochten in een maliënkolder, dit was een pak van allemaal kleine ringetjes. Het was erg handig want het was buigzaam en het dekte het lichaam af voor een groot deel af.

Helaas was het niet genoeg, een pijl zou er gemakkelijk doorheen kunnen komen. Bovendien zou met een beetje kracht ook een zwaard er ook zo doorheen schieten. Vanaf het einde van de 13e eeuw kwamen er harnassen, dit waren grote stalen platen die zo ongeveer de hele ridder van top tot teen bedekten. Harnassen waren in de Middeleeuwen erg duur en waren meestal alleen weggelegd voor de allerrijksten.

In heel Europa werden wapenuitrustingen gemaakt, de beste wapenuitrustingen kwamen uit Milaan (Italië) en uit Augsburg (Duitsland). Het was daar namelijk gemakkelijker om aan de grondstof voor de wapenuitrusting (ijzererts) te komen dan hier. Een harnas maken was niet eenvoudig, allereerst had men ijzer nodig, dit werd verhit en plat geslagen zodat er een soort platen ontstaan, die werden in een bepaald model geknipt zodat het perfect om de ridder heen pastte. Het harnas was erg zwaar, dat was een groot nadeel, de ridder kon zelf niet eens op zijn paard komen, dit werd met een soort schommel gedaan waar de ridder op ging zitten om zo op zijn paard gezwiept te worden. Net als de ridder krijgt het paard ook een harnas, om ook het paard tijdens de riddergevechten te beschermen. Een ridder in de middeleeuwen begon zijn gevecht meestal met een lans, deze groeide in de loop der tijd wel uit tot drie meter! Een lans is een soort lange stalen buis met aan het eind een punt en aan het begin een handvat.

De ridder hield dit vast om zo zijn tegenstander van het paard af te gooien of te spiesen aan zijn lans. Verder had de ridder ook nog een zeer persoonlijk wapen, namelijk zijn zwaard. Het zwaard was aan twee kanten scherp geslepen en had ook een handvat. Om de slagen en stoten van de lans af te weren droeg de ridder ook een schild. In het begin van de 12e eeuw was het nog maar een simpel driehoekig stuk hout dat met leer was bedekt. Later kwam het metalen schild, met een grote metalen knop in het midden, het hing aan een band om de hals van de ridder. Aan de achterkant waren riemen bevestigd. In de loop van de 14e eeuw werden de schilden steeds kleiner, sterker, en makkelijker hanteerbaar.